Lexical subordination and compounding. Pāṇini's focusing on the non-head

Maria Piera Candotti, Tiziana Pontillo

Abstract


In modern linguistics since American Structuralism onwards the notion of ‘head’ as “the most important constituent” has been the main target of the analysis devoted to syntagms and compounds. This notion nevertheless has some serious drawbacks, which are increasingly discussed from different points of view and methodologies in recent studies. In this paper we try to face some of this issues by interpreting them in the light of Pāṇini’s marked choice of concentrating on the ‘non-head’ constituent of complex words - precisely on the upasarjana. Pāṇini's approach is here submitted to the attention of modern scholars by virtue of its accounting for the undeniable 'non-secondary' role of the subordinate element whose specifying function with all its lexical and figural strength prevails over the identifying role of the head with which it combines.


Parole chiave


syntactic head; subordination; frozen case; upasarjana; Pāṇini

Full Text

PDF (English)

Riferimenti bibliografici


Bibliographic References

Primary Literature

A Aṣṭādhyāyī The Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini, ed. and transl. by R. N. Sharma, 5 vols. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1990-2003.

KV Kāśikā Vṛtti Kāśikā. A Commentary on Panini's Grammar by Vāmana and Jayāditya, ed. by Ā. Sarmā, Kh. Deshpande, and D.G. Padhye, Hydearabad: Sanskrit Academy Osmania University, 1969–1970.

M Mahābhāṣya The Vyākaraṇa-Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali, ed. by F. Kielhorn, Bombay: Government central book depot 1880-1885. Third edition, revised and furnished with additional readings, references, and select critical notes by K. V. Abhyankar. Poona: Bhandakar Oriental Research Institute 1962.

Secondary Literature

ALLEN, M. (1978), Morphological investigations. Doct. Th. University of Connecticut.

ALFIERI, L. ( 2014), The birth of a grammatical category: the case of the adjective class, in «Studi e Saggi Linguistici», 52, 1, pp. 141 -175.

ALFIERI, L. (2015), The birth of the adjective class as a problem of translation, in «De Gruyter Open Linguistics» 1, pp. 361–375.

BAUER, L. (1990), Be-heading the Word, in «Journal of linguistics» 26, pp. 1-31. Repr. : KATAMBA, F. (2004, ed.), Morphology: its Relation to Syntax (Morphology. Critical Concepts in Linguistics, 4), London and New York: Routledge. 171-203.

BAUER, L. (2008), Exocentric Compounds, in «Morphology» 18, pp. 51-74.

BAUER, L. (2012), Typology of Compounds, in LIEBER, R and ŠTEKAUER, P. (2013, eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Compounding, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 343-354.

BAUER, B. L. M. (2014), The Emergence and Development of SVO Patterning in Latin and French: Diachronic and Psycholinguistic Perspective, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

BHAT, D.N.S. (1994), The Adjectival Category. Criteria for differentiation and identification (Studies in Language Companion Series, 24), John Benjamin, Amsterdam - Philadelphia.

BIARDEAU, M. (1964), Théorie de la connaissance et philosophie de la parole dans le brahmanisme classique, Mouton, Paris - La Haye.

BLOOMFIELD. L. (1933), Language. Hot, Rinehart and Winston, New York etc.

BOOIJ, G. (2007 [20051]), The Grammar of Words. An Introduction to Linguistic Morphology, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

CARDONA, G. (1976), Pāṇini. A Survey of Research, Mouton, The Hague-Paris.

COMRIE, B. (1993), La famiglia linguistica indoeuropea: prospettive genetiche e tipologiche, in GIACALONE RAMAT A. and P. Ramat (1993 eds), Le Lingue Indoeuropee, Il Mulino, Bologna, pp. 95-121.

DIXON, R. M. W. (1982), Where have all the Adjectives gone? and other Essays in Semantics and Syntax, 1-62. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin.

DIXON, R. M. W. and AIKHENWALD, A.Y. (2004 eds), Adjective Classes: A Cross-linguistic Typology, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

DRESSLER, W.U., MAYERTHALER, W., PANAGL, O. and WURZEL, W.U. (1987 eds.), Leitmotifs in Natural Morphology, John Benjamins, Amsterdam - Philadelphia.

GILLON, B. (2007), Exocentric Compounds in Classical Sanskrit, in HUET, G. and KULKARNI A. (2007 eds), First International Sanskrit Computational Linguistics Symposium, Oct 2007, Rocquencourt, France. http://hal.inria.fr/SANSKRIT/fr/.

JACOBI, H. (1897), Compositum und Nebensatz. Studien über die Indogermanische Sprachentwicklung, Cohen, Bonn.

JOSHI, S. D. and BHATE, S. (1983), The Role of the Particle ca in the Interpretation of the Aṣṭādhyāyī, in JOSHI, S.D. and LADDU, S.D. (1983 eds), Proceedings of the International Seminar on Studies in the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini (Held in July 1981), (Publications of the Centre of Advanced Study in Sanskrit Class B n° 8.) CASS, Pune, pp. 167-227.

HAMPTON, J.A. (1987), Inheritance of attributes in natural concept conjunctions, in «Memory and Cognition», 15, pp. 55-71.

HAJEK, J. (2004), Adjective Classes: What can we Conclude?, in DIXON, R. M. W. and AIKHENWALD, A.Y. (2004 eds), Adjective Classes: A Cross-linguistic Typology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 348-58.

KASTOVSKY D. (1982), Wortbildung und Semantik, Pädagogischer Verlag-Schwann-Bagel, Düsseldorf.

KIPARSKY, P. (1982), Lexical Morphology and Phonology, in Linguistics in the Morning Calm. Selected Papers from SICOL-1981, ed. by the Linguistic Society of Korea, Hanshin Publishing Company, Seoul, pp. 3-91.

LIEBER, R. (1981), On the Organization of the Lexicon, Indiana University Linguistics Club, Bloomington.

LIEBER, R. (2010), On the lexical semantics of compounds, in SCALISE, S. - and VOGEL, I. (2010 eds), Cross-Disciplinary Issues in Compounding (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 311), John Benjamins, Amsterdam- Philadelphia, pp. 127-144.

LIEBER, R. (2012), A Lexical Semantic Approach to Compounding, in LIEBER, R. and ŠTEKAUER, P. (2012 eds) The Oxford Handbook of Compounding, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 78-104.

LOWE, J. J. (2015), The syntax of Sanskrit compounds, in «Language» 91, 3, pp. 71-114.

MARCHAND, H. (1960), The Categories and Types of Present-day English Word-formation, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.

PORCHER, M.-C. (1982), Métaphore et Comparaison dans quelques composés Sanskrits, in «Journal Asiatique», pp. 153-171.

RADICCHI, A. (1985–1988), La teoria pāṇiniana dei Samāsa secondo l’interpretazione delle scuole grammaticali indiane dal quinto all’ottavo secolo d.C. 2 Vols., Elite, Firenze.

RENOU, L. (1961), Grammaire sanscrite : phonétique, composition, dérivation, le nom, le verbe, la phrase. 2. éd. revue, corrigée et augmentée, Adrien-Maisonneuve, Paris.

SASSOON, G.W. (2013), Vagueness, Gradability and Tipicality. The interpretation of adjectives and nouns. Brill, Leiden-Boston.

SELKIRK, E. (1982.), The Syntax of Words, MIT Press, Cambridge.

SCALISE, S. and BISETTO A. (2012), The Classification of Compounds, in LIEBER, R. and ŠTEKAUER, P. (2012 eds) The Oxford Handbook of Compounding, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 34-53.

SCALISE, S. and VOGEL, I. (2010), Why Compounding?, in SCALISE, S. - and VOGEL, I. (2010 eds), Cross-Disciplinary Issues in Compounding (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 311), John Benjamins, Amsterdam- Philadelphia, pp. 1-18.

SCALISE, S. and FÁBREGAS A. (2010), The head in Compounding, in SCALISE, S. - and VOGEL, I. (2010 eds), Cross-Disciplinary Issues in Compounding (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 311), John Benjamins, Amsterdam- Philadelphia, pp. 109-126.

ŠTEKAUER, P. (1998), An Onomasiological Theory of English Word-Formation, John Benjamins, Amsterdam -Philadelphia.

ŠTEKAUER, P., VALERA, S. and KÖRTVÉLYESSY, L. (2012), Word Formation in the World’s Languages. A Typological Survey, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

TEN HACKEN, P. (2012) Early Generative Approaches, in LIEBER, R. and ŠTEKAUER, P. (2012 eds) The Oxford Handbook of Compounding, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 54-77.

THUMB, A. and HAUSCHILD, R. (1959), ‪Handbuch des Sanskrit: II. Teil: Formenlehre, Winter Universitätsverlag, Heidelberg. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

WHITNEY, W.D. (18892), A Sanskrit Grammar, including both the Classical language, and the older Dialects, of Veda and Brahmana, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Repr. (1924), Breitkopp & Härtel, Leipzig.

ZWICKY, A. M. (1985), Heads in «Journal of Linguistics» 21, pp. 1-29.


Refback

  • Non ci sono refbacks, per ora.


Copyright (c) 2020 Studi e Saggi Linguistici

eISSN 2281-9142 - ISSN 0085-6827 - Webmaster - Publisher